Friday, August 28, 2020

Steps free essay sample

â€Å"As I avoid the stones on the movement beaten way, I let my means fall substantial and my pack settle back. I am pushing ahead yet moving indiscriminately no different. Psyche clear, my consideration meanders as my feet fall into a mood: step, step, trailed by another step† Excerpt from diary The late spring of my sophomore year, I applied to go to an authority course called Outward Bound. Confined in the wild with ten different children from around New Jersey, we climbed the Appalachian Mountains and paddled the Delaware River. Before the finish of the primary day, I had just sunk somewhere within myself all things considered, I had applied for the course for my own advantage, not to make companions. With just four miles behind us, two of the others had just separated in tears. I was disappointed, tired, and hungry: a blend that executed any piece of the receptive outlook I had left. We will compose a custom paper test on Steps or on the other hand any comparative point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page In the next days, I encountered a difference in heart. Out there, away from all interruptions, our solitary type of amusement was discussion. We talked essentially. â€Å"What’s your most loved T.V. appear? What’s your old neighborhood like?† Gradually, I understood that they were simply typical children: kids who conveyed a similar burden on their shoulders, whose endeavors to sing like Chris Brown were similarly as unfortunate as mine, and who partook in my undying energy for That ‘70s Show. They were interesting, unconstrained, and truly kind. I ended up sharing my privileged insights, fears, qualities with complete outsiders; yet, peculiarly, I felt happy with trusting in them. I could talk and they would tune in, similarly as I had for them. I brought down the cushion that I had developed throughout the years my notoriety, my sense of self. I was totally helpless, however on the other hand so were they. We as a whole smelled, we as a whole looked horrendous, we as a whole persevered. I was a piece of a family. We canvassed 105 miles in twelve days an astonishing accomplishment yet the hardest part was still to come. They sent us separately out into the forested areas, alone totally secluded for 48 hours. Drenched in nature, deprived all things considered, left uniquely with musings of loved ones; it was a period for memory, a chance to go up against myself: â€Å"Caught amidst a deafening tempest , The dead branches are torn down, another animal is conceived. Conceived from the cinders of restoration and fire, the evil spirit is esteemed a wicked liar. One face of honesty, the other of wrongdoing; the last is held however hidden from inside. What's more, in this tempest this mystery is just incited, the fire of his creation over and again fed. Ascending in feelings of rage and anger, the questionable evil presence shakes his pen. Be that as it may, the tempest of isolation destroys him; and at long last reestablishes him to have one face and heart.† Excerpt from diary Outward Bound constrained me to understand that life is comprised of steps both of all shapes and sizes. I figured out how to welcome the magnificence around me, the ground underneath my feet, and the individuals that can perpetually transform me. Some of the time there is a set way, an essential excursion you should take. Be that as it may, one should at last veer from the most common way to go and learn for himself, at the same time following his own feet.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Management accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

The board bookkeeping - Essay Example It might be noticed that the money related device of proportion investigation has been utilized to offer remarks and correlations between the two organizations over their monetary position and execution. During 2007 Intercontinental has not viably enhanced its benefit exhibitions in 2006. Actually it has kept up pretty much a similar degree of gainfulness as was in 2006.The increments in productivity proportions in net benefit and profit for value are beguiling. ROE has expanded manifolds since capital utilized has been decreased hugely from $686m to minor $49m. In any case net benefit proportion that shows the genuine usable productivity of the element has dwindled and stayed at nearly a similar level. Increment consequently on capital utilized is minor. The general productivity on operational gainfulness has not improved. The benefit execution of Peel Hotels in 2007 has likewise gone down when contrasted and 2006. Net benefits and ROCE that show operational productivity has indicated declined exhibitions. On the hand ROE, return on resources, net benefit proportions that are influenced by factors other than activity exhibitions have demonstrated expanded exhibitions. The outcome is that organization has not enhanced its genuine benefit yet demonstrated productivity just to draw in speculators and other intrigued clients of budget summaries. The two organizations are confronting liquidity mash as reflected from their present and brisk proportions. The two proportions are settle for what is most convenient option required to keep up ideal degree of liquidity. The liquidity status is basic in both the years for every one of the organizations. The organizations need to find a way to improve liquidity; in any case the two organizations are confronting the risk of transient indebtedness. Intercontinental has low stock turnover yet it in any event has kept up a similar exhibition in 2007 as was in 2006. The organization has demonstrated improvement in assortment of borrowers yet

Friday, August 21, 2020

Terrorist Attacks Causes and Effects

Psychological militant Attacks Causes and Effects Presentation As of late, psychological militant assaults have expanded immensely. As per Paul Wilkinson in his book â€Å"Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response† (2011), psychological oppression despite everything stays a major issue for the global network; during the years 2006 to 2009 over 60% of the nations on the planet experienced fear monger assaults. Characterizing fear mongering has been a scary assignment to do, more than several definitions were made over various scholastic fields, and still there has been no advancement in giving a universally acknowledged definition. Fear based oppression can be characterized as the risk or use of viciousness for political, strict or moral purposes that impact the perspectives and conduct of a specific gathering of individuals to achieve their targets (Rapoport and Alexander, eds.1982). This definition was created by David Rapoport and Yonah Alexander in their book â€Å"The Rationalization of Terrorism† which was distributed in the year 1982 as a basic meaning of fear based oppression. Consistently, fear mongering has been a profoundly intricate wonder that is continually changing, and that is influenced by numerous components, as the word itself is a wide theme which is related with a wide assortment of gatherings, and I accept this is the motivation behind why the universal network couldn't think of a consolidated definition. Wilkinson (2011) composes that a few people boycott the word fear based oppression and would prefer to call individuals who use psychological warfare as a weapon as â€Å"freedom fighters†, â€Å"holy warriors† or â€Å"revolutionaries†, contingent upon the reason they are battling for. In any event, as indicated by the Scholar Dr.Dipak Gupta, fear mongering is about difficult to characterize. In this writing survey, I will initially introduce a review of the current writing on the subject of reasons for fear based oppressor assaults, underlining the primary positions and wellsprings of difference. Expanding on this, I will at that point distinguish holes in the writing on the subject so as to perceive how my future research could have an additional worth. At long last, subsequent to narrowing down the point, I will introduce explicit research addresses that I accept would be productive to investigate further. Review of research by key researchers I mean to explore and investigate the root and trigger reasons for fear mongering, by giving a diagram of the fundamental writing on this subject, and dependent on this writing audit, an extensive rundown of solid variables is introduced to exhibit the reasons for psychological oppression. It is constantly a need to look for the causes and causality in each sociology, in view of the need to comprehend a specific marvel. Additionally, when we manage unfortunate events and occurrences, we for the most part look to comprehend the why and how inquiries so as to create suitable measures and factors. In this area, I will attempt to separate between main drivers and trigger causes, which as indicated by Martha Crenshaw (1981) underlying drivers (or preconditions) are the variables that happen as time goes on, and trigger causes (or precipitants) are factors that happen promptly in a particular occasion. Fear based oppression is an examination that has stretched out over a few fields includi ng political theory, human science, criminology, brain research and history, and what specialists have attempted to do is to fabricate our attention to additionally build up our comprehension of this marvels. Sadly, the main result of this mindfulness was to bring up a larger number of issues than to give answers. The main drivers of fear based oppression Despite the fact that investigations of this wonder have been occurring since the 1960’s, the quantity of distributions that straightforwardly talk about the main drivers or the preconditions are restricted. In his book â€Å"Terrorists, Victims and Society: Psychological Perspectives on Terrorism and its Consequences† (2003), Andrew Silke states that in spite of the fact that there have been various productions about fear based oppression, its exploration has not mirrored any upgrades in quality, and regardless of multiplication of scholarly examinations in the field, there have been no improvement or progress here. Andrew Silke (2001) likewise called attention to that in spite of the fact that there has been ongoing examination on psychological warfare, just 20% of the distributed articles give new information regarding the matter, while the remainder of the distributed articles are rehashing and adjusting old information. It is said that nations with middle of the road scope of political opportunity are typically more inclined to psychological oppression than nations that have significant levels of political opportunity (Alberto Abadie, 2004). Numerous geographic factors additionally influence and are imperative to suffer psychological oppressor exercises. As indicated by Abadie’s dataset on fear based oppressor hazard and assaults around the world, it has been assessed that political opportunity has a non-monotonic impact on psychological oppression. He thusly saw that there is an expansion in psychological warfare for nations experiencing significant change from tyrant systems to popular governments (Alberto Abadie, 2004:11). One of the most refered to distributions on the reasons for fear mongering is the article composed by Martha Crenshaw under the title of â€Å"The reasons for terrorism† (1981), featuring the troubles of discovering general clarifications for psychological oppression and recognizing various kinds of factors. Crenshaw recognizes and isolates the factors into 3 gatherings: vital, basic and mental, and she underscores that the principle thought of fear mongering is a creation of judicious political decision. As per Crenshaw, psychological oppression is the aftereffect of a choice made by an association to contradict an administration; it is viewed as a legitimate method to satisfy wants (Crenshaw, 1981: 385). In spite of the way that Crenshaw’s article offers a great deal of thoughts to additionally look into, and that her article was refered to by others, just scarcely any researchers have been tested to bring our fundamental comprehension of the reasons for psychological warfare to a further developed and more elevated level. Twelve years after Crenshaw’s article, Jeffrey Ian Ross composed another powerful article under the name: â€Å"Structural Causes of Oppositional Political Terrorism: Towards a Causal Model† (1993), he additionally recognized three factors that causes fear based oppression like the ones of Crenshaw, to be specific basic and mental causes, and sane decision. Another researcher, Dipak Gupta (2005), has attempted to comprehend and look into why individuals take part in fear based oppressor activities for the sake of gatherings that speak to a specific ethnicity, belief system, religion or patriotism. His contentions are fundamentally established in financial and socio-mental components of human inspirations, where he expresses that the connection between monetary variables and socio-political factors, for example, poverty†¦etc and fear based oppression is frail. Gupta likewise expresses that â€Å"political savagery happens when a pioneer offers voice to the dissatisfaction by planning an all around characterized social development of aggregate personality and paints in clear shading the picture of ‘us’ and ‘them’† (2005:19). This implies at the end of the day that the political, financial and strict disappointment are not the only one the makes that lead psychological oppression, there probably been m ain drivers that stay covered up until a trigger system is actuated, which at that point prompts flare-up of viciousness and fear monger assaults. We have seen that researchers have extended the examination on underlying drivers to psychological warfare, expanding on what Crenshaw has found, however yet not created any new methodologies towards fear based oppression, yet extended the components of financial causation and different variables, particularly Gupta. In the wake of giving an outline for a portion of the researchers about hypothetical methodologies, I will list here a portion of the solid underlying drivers of psychological oppression. The rundown that I am going to introduce isn't a comprehensive rundown of the underlying drivers, and isn't to speak to an exhaustive arrangement of the main drivers, however to distinguish the variety of causal variables that typically add to psychological warfare. The causes are gotten from the production by Randy Borum (2003) under the title Psychology of Terrorism. First reason could be that absence of majority rules system, rule of law and common freedoms are conditions for some types of residential fear based oppression. We in this manner distinguish that the most vote based states and social orders have the least degree of oppositional brutality. As Crenshaw states â€Å"Democracy and fear mongering are not total inverses: saying yes to majority rules system, tragically, doesn't mean saying no to terrorism† (Club de Madrid, 2005: 14) Second reason is fast modernization and urbanization as high monetary development has additionally been found to associate emphatically with the rise of ideological psychological oppression, however not with the ethno-patriot fear based oppression. A case of this reason given by Borum is the point at which a nation faces abrupt riches, for example from oil, and they experience changes from inborn to cutting edge social orders during one age or even less now and again (Borum, 2003:5). Third reason is authentic predecessors of political brutality, insurgencies, common wars, tyrannies or even occupation may bring down the edge for acknowledgment of political viciousness and psychological oppression and impede the improvement of peaceful standards among all the sections of the case of this could be, when kids are raised in a general public that puts stock in and praises suffering, retribution and scorn of other ethnic gatherings, at that point it is probably going to build their eagerness to submit or bolster a fear based oppressor act when they grow up (Borum, 2003:5). Fourth reason is the suppression by remote occupation or by pilgrim controls; this has offered ascend to numerous national freedom developments that have sought after plan of action in psychological oppressor systems and other political methods (Borum, 2003:5). To wrap things up, the fifth reason is the experience of segregating individuals based on their ethnic birthplaces or strict foundations, is the main underlying driver of ethno-patriot psychological oppression. At the point when minority individuals are being denied from t

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Biggest Myth About Argumentative Essay Topics Reddit Exposed

The Biggest Myth About Argumentative Essay Topics Reddit Exposed Argumentative Essay Topics Reddit Help! In its heart, the essay should be about you. Bear in mind you may make funny argumentative essays if you do a few things. It's crucially important to completely engage yourself in the subject you will write. It isn't a must, but should you care about your topic, it's going to be resembled in your writing. Argumentative essay topics are so important since they are debatableand it's vital to at all times be critically considering the world around us. An argumentative essay presents either side of a problem. It is a writing piece meant to persuade someone to think the way you do. In order to really convince readers of your viewpoint, it must also look at the opposing views. Definitions of Argumentative Essay Topics Reddit An argumentative essay is a sort of thesis or composition in which you have to present your view and try to convince others your facts and arguments are correct. An argumentative essay objective is to take one specific viewpoint out of the other viewpoints. The past couple of sentences ought to be extremely clear and have an enduring image on your audience. An argumentative essay example will reveal the should possess some crucial components which make it better in the practice of convincing. In order to supply an in-depth understanding about the argumentative essay, it's better to examine some of the greatest examples of argumentative essay. Remember that the amount of your essay is dependent upon the assignment offered to you. You can also see concept essays. When you develop this kind of essay, you should make your claims by your composition so it will be open fordebate. Whether it's an argumentative or expository essay which you're writing, it is essential to develop a clear thesis statement and an obvious sound reasoning. Before concluding the essay, it is crucial to summarise with a strong emphasis on the subject. The very first sentence of the essay has to be interesting enough to produce the reader read on. Then you need to endeavour to choose the right argumentative essay format. Before writing an argumentative essay, there's one important thing which you should know. The structure of your paper's outline is just like the structure of your whole essay. There are a few particular elements which are needed in an argumentative essay. Argumentative essay format is dependent on your professor's requirements, since there is not any common pattern for each essay. The Foolproof Argumentative Essay Topics Reddit Strategy Your introductory paragraph needs to be clear and concise just enjoy the example. The present paper clarifies and proves an extremely general variant of the claim. The introduction involves an explanation of the matter, background info, and the author's position. Any excellent task finishes with a terrific conclusion and the very best examples of the argumentative essay will arrive in with a conclusion with an overview of all of the points together with a gist of the evidences provided. Get the Scoop on Argumentative Essay Topics Reddit Befor e You're Too Late All you should have is a tiny curiosity besides that everything will get an intriguing game of knowledge. Pick something you are obsessed with. The first thing you're likely to have to do is to pick a topic that has more than one clear side. Without a very good evidence, nobody will believe my words. Understanding how to compose a strong argumentative paper can help you advance your very own argumentative thinking. When you try to find controversial topics, you might be tempted to choose subjects that can be way too broad to discuss. The argumentative essay has a particular format that must be followed to blow the mind of the reader, and it's particularly helpful for students and the corporate when making strategic proposals. Writing an argumentative essay is a skill that anyone in school should know, even though it can be useful outside the classroom, too.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Intuition in A Jury of Her Peers Essay - 1189 Words

Intuition in A Jury of Her Peers Though men and women are now recognized as generally equal in talent and intelligence, when Susan Glaspell wrote A Jury of Her Peers in 1917, it was not so. In this turn-of-the-century, rural midwestern setting, women were often barely educated and possessed virtually no political or economic power. And, being the weaker sex, there was not much they could do about it. Relegated to home and hearth, women found themselves at the mercy of the more powerful men in their lives. Ironically, it is just this type of powerless existence, perhaps, that over the ages developed into a power with which women could baffle and frustrate their male counterparts: a sixth sense - an inborn trait†¦show more content†¦For while the men are looking actively for the smoking gun, the women are confronted with more subtle clues in spite of themselves and even try to hide from each other what they intuitively know. But they do not fool each other for long, as Glaspell describes, Their ey es met - something flashed to life, passed between them; then, as if with an effort, they seemed to pull away from each other (295). However, they cannot pull away, for they are bound by a power they do not even comprehend: We all go through the same things - its all just a different kind of the same thing!...why do you and I understand? Why do we know - what we know this minute? (303). They do not realize that it is intuition they share, that causes them to [see] into things, [to see] through a thing to something else.... (294). Though sympathetic to Minnie Wright, the women cannot deny the damning clues that lead them to the inescapable conclusion of her guilt. If it is ironic that the women find the clues, it is even more ironic that they find them in the mundane household items to which the men attribute so little significance. Nothing here but kitchen things, the men mistakenly think (287). Because of their weak intuition, they do not see the household as indicative of Johns and Minnies characters. They do not see beyond the cheerless home to John Wrights grim nature, nor do the dilapidated furnishings provideShow MoreRelatedSusan Glaspell s A Jury Of Her Peers995 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Trifles,† in 1916, which portrayed how women’s lives were seen as less significant throughout American society. The following year, Glaspell wrote the short story â€Å"A Jury of Her Peers,† which was essentially a longer and more detailed version of â€Å"Trifles.† The stories are alike in many societal implications, since â€Å"A Jury of Her Peers† was based off of â€Å"Trifles.† However, they also have some notable differences. The most striking distinction between the two stories would have to be the significanceRead More The Power Struggles in Jury of Her Peers and Mama Come Home Essay1110 Words   |  5 PagesThe Power Struggles in Jury of Her Peers and Mama Come Home The issue of dominance and subordinance is addressed in the short stories â€Å"A Jury of her Peers† by Susan Glaspell and â€Å"Mama Come Home† by James Tiptree, Jr. In the stories the subordinates are harmed by the dominants, but the subordinates overcome the suppression to triumph in the end. The groups with the power control the laws and the positions of the weaker group. To begin with, â€Å"A Jury of her Peers† is about the way womenRead MoreIrony, By Susan Glaspell s `` A Jury Of Her Peers ``1484 Words   |  6 Pagestrue and what the readers know to be true. Many writers use irony in their short stories to prove a dramatic point, or just to develop a story for upcoming use. These short stories by Shirley Jackson’s â€Å"The Lottery† (140), Susan Glaspell’s â€Å"A Jury of Her Peers† (183), and Stephen Crane’s â€Å"The Blue Hotel† (229), spin a tale of symbolic irony. Each tell a tale paradoxical twists with sublime contradiction where one is led to believe one side of an event, yet it is dragged down a twisted trail of mentalRead MoreSympathy For A By Mrs Hale And Mrs. Hale874 Words   |  4 Pagesunconcerned with matters of importance by men, a woman’s compassion and intuition can hold incredible power. â€Å"In a Jury of Her Peers†, Minnie Wright is judged by her peers, and by th eir knowledge of her prior life, her current circumstances, and forced destitution, she is found innocent. In the story, Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters accompany their husbands to the Wright home in a quest to find evidence implicating Minnie Wright in the murder of her husband. From the moment they enter the home, Mrs. Hale is sympatheticRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesof Interpersonal Skills 4 What Managers Do 5 Management Functions 6 †¢ Management Roles 6 †¢ Management Skills 8 †¢ Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 8 †¢ A Review of the Manager’s Job 9 Enter Organizational Behavior 10 Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 11 Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 13 Psychology 14 †¢ Social Psychology 14 †¢ Sociology 14 †¢ Anthropology 14 There Are Few Absolutes in OB 14 Challenges and Opportunities for O B 15 Responding to Economic PressuresRead MoreMarketing Research and Information Systems47836 Words   |  192 Pagesthe decision-maker s problem into a research problem and study design. Clear, concise, attainable, measurable and quantifiable objectives Suppose that the marketing manager states that he needs to know the potential market for a new product his/her organisation has been developing. At first glance this might appear to meet all of the requirements of being clear, concise, attainable, measurable and quantifiable. In practice it would possibly meet only one of these criteria, i.e. it is concise! Read MoreOverview of Hrm93778 Words   |  376 Pagesgeneralizations about the behavior of people. Some of our generalizations may provide valid insights into human behavior, but many are erroneous. Organizational behavior uses systematic study to improve predictions of behavior that would be made from intuition alone. Yet, because people are different, we need to look at OB in a contingency framework, using situational variables to moderate cause-effect relationships. †¢ OB addresses some issues that are not obvious, such as informal elements. It offersRead MoreAdl 01 - Principles and Practices of Management Study Material. Pdf Uploaded Successfully30836 Words   |  124 Pageson how a supervisor should organize her department and manage her staff. Although later research has created controversy over many of the following principles, they are still widely used in management theories. Division of work: Division of work and specialization produces more and better work with the same effort. Authority and responsibility: Authority is the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. A manager has official authority because of her position, as well as personal authorityRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 PagesCreating More Effective Performance Management Systems 247 Use Behavior-Based Measures 248 Combine Absolute and Relative Standards 248 DID YOU KNOW?: The â€Å"Anywhere† Performance Appraisal 248 Provide Ongoing Feedback 249 Use Multiple Raters 249 Use Peer Evaluations 249 360-Degree Appraisals 250 xii Contents Compensation Surveys 270 Wage Curves 270 The Wage Structure 271 WORKPLACE ISSUES: Team Performance Appraisals 250 Rate Selectively 251 Train Appraisers 251 The Performance AppraisalRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 Pagescompete with the burgeoning and often aggressive information industry, and this will require flexibility and adaptability to change. Try This! Think a bit about a job you held in the past or have now. First, consider your supervisor and his or her general behavior, managerial style, and attitude. Then think about your fellow employees and your perception of their competence and of their attitudes toward their work, the organization, and you. Finally, reflect upon the organization itself and its

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How Prohibition Affected Russia s Financial Crisis During...

Ketevan Kemoklidze Mr. Hermansen English Composition 06/01/2016 How Prohibition affected Russia’s Financial Fiasco During Russian Revolution? Amid Russian Revolution years there is the chance to watch the Russian economy experiencing a few basic moves, including a portion of the most exceedingly bad things that can happen to a nation. There was war and civil war. The economy endured monetary breaking down, separation, and starvation. There was a breakdown of state limit: government prohibited Vodka. Liquor abuse and inebriation issue showed up in the harvest time of 1907 amid the Third State Duma. M.D. Chleysev, an individual from the Octobrists, was the primary pusher of attempting to control the offer of vodka in the nation. As indicated by Hutchinson, author of Science, Politics, and the Alcohol Problem in Post-1905 Russia, his purpose behind joining the Octobrists was on the grounds that they were numerically prevalent. His answer for the issue was significantly more radical than any of the gatherings in the Duma were willing to go. Chelysev needed the Duma to declare alcohol a poison, to ban its manufacture...order the Ministry of Finance to compensate all those who had suffered from its effects. (Hutchinson 243). This would put an extreme pleat in the tsar s pocket since it would kill around third of the nation s salary, further it would need to remunerate individuals who had experienced its effects. The opposite side of the contention originated from a gatheringShow MoreRelatedAmerican Revolution and Study Guide Essay example5377 Words   |  22 Pagesthink English colonists learned from their early Jamestown experience? Focus on matters of fulfilling expectations, financial support, leadership skills, and relations with the Indians. What specific developments illustrate that the English living in the plantation colonies tried to apply these lessons? (25 pts) 2. Compare and contrast the ways in which tobacco and sugar affected the social and economic development of colonial America (10pts) Chapter 3 Study Guide â€Å"Settling the Northern Colonies† Read MoreModern History.Hsc.2012 Essay25799 Words   |  104 PagesTopic Four – World War I TOPIC ONE – USA 1919-1941 USA 1920’S * the radio age * felt like istory had turned a corner and never going back * stock market * black Thursday November 24 1929 * the jazz age * a speakeasyyyyyyy How significant were the Republican policies in causing the great depression? The significance of the republic policies were great, they brought a lot of growth in the 20’s allowing the market to strive over lots of trading and the purchaseRead MorePest Analysis of an Educational Institution19905 Words   |  80 Pages - Accessed 14 March 2013 Elliot amp; Elliot. (2004), Financial Accounting and Reporting (8th Edition), FT/Prentice Hall. Lewis, R. amp; Pendrill. D. (2004), â€Å"Advanced Financial Accounting† (7th Edition), FT/Prentice Hall. Britton amp; Jorissen. (2003), â€Å"International Financial Reporting and Analysis† Thomson Task 4 Tisdale M.A. (N.D.) WiseGeek: â€Å"What is a Trade Surplus† [Online] available on http://wwwRead MoreWireless Technology Essay16392 Words   |  66 Pagesto start your car while you are getting ready. This is just one of the many things that we might take for granted that wireless technology has provided for us in the world today. Wireless technology is a technology that has changed the world and how it operates. Wireless technology is the ability to communicate between devices without wires. Wireless technology is found in many devices ranging from cell phones, computers, GPS units and house alarms. Through the advancements in our technologyRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesand permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Data Collection Harvesting Personalities Online

Question: Discuss about the Data Collection for Harvesting Personalities Online. Answer: Introduction: This paper is a review of the case-study by the same title (Raicu, 2016). A political candidate in America hired the services of a private company to help classify registered voters above and beyond the static demographics. The statistics included a personality analysis of the individual, to help the candidates better target (micro-target) specialised advertisements to people, both online and offline (Talbot, 2016) totalling 5,000 data points per person ("About Us", 2017). The company understandably keeps the techniques and the exhaustive list of the data providers confidential. They distilled individuals and all of their idiosyncrasies into one of conscientious, neurotic, or agreeable. Interestingly, the candidate had three different advertisement campaigns (an architect, a soldier, and a family man) each appealing to the three mentioned personality types, complete with the matching subliminal messages. These suggestions hold importance not only in advertising but also politics (Her skovits, 2010) ("Subliminals in Politics", n.d.). This paper focuses on the ethical concerns on how the company 'harvested' the people's personality. Specifically, this report will ask if the harvesting method is ethical, should the people taking the questionnaire have been advised explicitly, and is extrapolating the classification to individuals who did not take the survey moral? This paper uses four classical ethical theories - Utilitarianism, Deontology, Virtue Ethics and Contractarianism for evaluation. Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a version of Consequentialism, and the latter identifies the end-result as the sole criteria for judging an action. Utilitarianism stands for the greater good. Thus, the action has to be considered with its good consequences, and deduct the negative impact and see how many entities will or have received the benefit. It has its roots in the 19th in helping legislators judge which laws were morally the best ("Thinking Ethically", 2017). In the context of Utilitarianism, was the company's method of harvesting ethical? This method of harvesting using data from unsuspecting individuals hugely benefited the company for sure with no harm to the enterprise. There was no harm to people, but no advantage either. Thus, this method had enormous benefits but for a smaller number of individuals, but no harm to others. Thus, this is ethical. Next, should the people have been informed explicitly about the company's intent to use their responses to profile them? If the individual was informed, there are good chances that the responses may have been different (Craighead Nemeroff, 2001), or they may not have taken up the questionnaire at all. Not informing them resulted in significant gains for the company and marginal gains to the individual in his satisfaction of exploration of his personality. Informing them would have led to likewise losses to both. Thus, this is ethical. Finally, was the company ethical in extrapolating the da ta? Not extrapolating the data would have resulted in a loss to the enterprise by lowering the quality and quantity of data. Not extrapolating would have led to no gains or loss to the people. Thus, this extrapolation is ethical. Deontology Deontology is concerned with duty. This school of thought assigns intrinsic values to actions and these values are be-all and end-all. The consequences, circumstances, motivations, internal or external pressure, and other such things do not matter. The two pillars of this theory are categorical (absolute) and imperative (duty to perform) (University, 2013). In the context of Deontology, was the company's method of harvesting ethical? In and of itself, when a user is filling up the questionnaire, their transaction is limited to honestly answering the questions asked to the best of their ability and the company's duty is to process these responses, inform the individual of his appraisal and be done with the data. However, the business went sideways from its duty. Thus, this is ethically immoral. Next, should the people have been informed explicitly about the company's intent to use their responses to profile them? The duty of a service provider (and the user too) is to tell upfront of any and all intentions of their interaction. The company failed in its duty by willfully misrepresenting its intentions. Thus, this was not ethical. Finally, was the company ethical in extrapolating the data? The company had some data at its disposal and extrapolated it for people who had not participated in its questionnaires. Any organisation (commercial o r government) is stepping outside its bounds when it tries to profile an individual without his express permission, and the company did that. Thus, this is unethical. Virtue Ethics Virtue ethics encompass a way of living which results in the right thing, at the right time, in the right amount, with the right person. This right is not the same as moderation, though moderation is a part of it. The right way is effortless (Athanassoulis, n.d.). As an illustration, it is okay to gorge sometimes, and it is fine to fast sometimes. However, unlike the other schools of thought considered, Virtue ethics do not codify a set a categorical imperative or consider the utility of an action as everything. Virtue ethics aim to achieve a deep happiness for self and others (eudaimonia) and leave the application to the individual. It consists of qualities like Honesty, courage, compassion, generosity, fidelity, integrity, fairness, self-control, and prudence ("Thinking Ethically", 2017). In the context of Virtue Ethics, was the company's method of harvesting ethical? This method of harvesting using data from unsuspecting individuals which rates low on honesty and fidelity. This technique was also unfair to the people who thought they were merely participating in a fun personality test. Thus, this is immoral. Next, should the people have been informed explicitly about the company's intent to use their responses to profile them? No matter the consequences for the company, by not updating the participants explicitly about its scheme to use the data (gathered on the pretext of a simple personality test), the enterprise failed in honesty and integrity. Actions like these do not lead to welfare of all. Thus, this is unethical. Finally, was the company ethical in extrapolating the data? The company used some data to estimate the tendencies of some other people, and those other people were not made aware of this. This action is somewhere in the middle of absolute honesty and absolute dishonesty. Such extrapolation's data may have helped the company provide better services to the client, which may have assisted in improving the world, even if in a small way. Thus, this extrapolation is ethical. Contractarianism In the contract school of thought, there is no morality per se ("Contractarianism: Crash Course Philosophy #37", 2016), but it emerges as a necessity whenever free, rational and self-interested entities come together. The people (being rational) realise that there are more gains in cooperating rather than not working together and thus morality appears. This arrangement does away with the constant threat in exchange for the endless opportunity (e.g. if I can steal from your plate, then you too can take from my plate). When someone defects and takes away more than their fair share, and the morality is all-around to encourage the contract's upholding by all parties concerned. In the context of Contractarianism, was the company's method of harvesting ethical? The agreement between the user and the website was to provide a questionnaire for personality assessment. By underhandedly using this information for some other purpose, the enterprise failed in keeping its end of the bargain. Thus, this is immoral. Next, should the people have been informed explicitly about the company's intent to use their responses to profile them? The company provides a (vague) privacy policy which, among other things, includes this sort of use. The user, by continuing to use the website agrees to the privacy policy. So, the company did not break any contract by using the data collected for political purposes. Thus, this is ethical. Finally, was the company ethical in extrapolating the data? The company used some data to estimate the tendencies of some other people. Those other people were not made aware of this and thus did not make any contract i.e. this agreement with the indiv idual who did not take part in the questionnaire was not free (as in speech), and the company failed on it. Thus, this extrapolation is not ethical. Conclusion This paper looked into three specific questions in the action of a private company collecting user personality data under the guise of a character appraisal from the point-of-view of four classical ethics theories. As per the context, the questions came out ethical or unethical, as the foundations of the theory coloured the action. All in all, not being explicit about the intended use of the data and underhandedly collecting the data seems to be unethical by the most schools of thought. The ethics theories were divided on whether the extrapolation on unsuspecting registered voters was ethical or not. References About Us. (2017). Cambridge Analytica. Retrieved 6 January 2017, from Athanassoulis, N. Virtue Ethics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 6 January 2017, from Contractarianism: Crash Course Philosophy #37. (2016). YouTube. Retrieved 6 January 2017, from Craighead, W. Nemeroff, C. (2001). The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science (1st ed., p. 668). New York: Wiley. Craighead, W. Nemeroff, C. (2001). The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science (1st ed., p. 668). New York: Wiley. Herskovits, A. (2010). Subliminal Messages in Politics. Political Persuasion. Retrieved 6 January 2017, from Raicu, I. (2016). Data Collection: Harvesting Personalities Online. Santa Clara University. Retrieved 6 January 2017, from Subliminals in Politics. Retrieved 6 January 2017, from Talbot, D. (2016). Political campaigns now guess your personality type before showing you customised ads. MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 6 January 2017, from Thinking Ethically. (2017). Santa Clara University. Retrieved 6 January 2017, from University, B. (2013). What is Deontology?. YouTube. Retrieved 6 January 2017, from